Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.
Harvest: May - July
Citrus productions in Argentina have faced a difficult season in 2018/2019, and for the current year will also have to overcome a complex economic scenario. Inputs are kept in USD, generating an extra cost compared to the previous season. Moreover, there is a sharp rise in production costs and freight prices, alongside high tax pressure.
阿根廷的柑橘生产在2018/2019年面临困难，今年还将不得不克服复杂的经济形势。 投入以美元计价，与上一季相比产生了额外的成本。 此外，生产成本和运费价格急剧上升，同时税收压力很大。
On the 1st of July, the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (Senasa) decided to suspend the export of fresh lemons from Tucumán to the EU, after verifying the presence of the disease known as “black spot”. Black spot is a disease caused by a fungus that manifests itself by spots of this colour on the skin of the fruit. It does not affect its safety for human consumption but the European Union considers it a quarantine pest that needs to be excluded. This decision has a strong economic impact for Argentinian producers and exporters, as well as for the country due to the fall in foreign exchange earnings. An investigation has now begun to identify the causes that led to this situation. Argentina is the major supplier of fresh lemons to the EU, as well as Argentina’s main export market. In 2019, 126,863 MT were exported to the EU; that is, 54% of Argentina’s total exports and around 25% of total European imports. It is estimated that around 100,000 MT of Argentine lemons have already entered the EU market since the start of this campaign in March 2020 to date.
7月1日，国家农业食品卫生和质量服务机构(Senasa)在核实了被称为“黑斑”的疾病的存在后，决定暂停从图库曼向欧盟出口新鲜柠檬。 黑斑病是一种由真菌引起的疾病，它表现为果皮上的黑色斑点。它不影响人类食用的安全性，但欧盟认为它是一种需要排除的检疫性害虫。 这一决定对阿根廷的生产者和出口商这一决定对阿根廷的生产商和出口商产生了强烈的经济影响，以及由于外汇收入下降对国家造成影响。目前已经开始调查导致这种情况的原因。阿根廷是欧盟新鲜柠檬的主要供应国，欧盟也是阿根廷的主要出口市场。2019年，出口欧盟126,863公吨;这相当于阿根廷总出口的54%，欧洲总进口的25%左右。据估计，自2020年3月至今，大约有10万公吨的阿根廷柠檬已经进入了欧盟市场。
Market price USD 18.00 /kilo
Orange Oil Citrus sinensis
Harvest: March - June
There are no carryover stocks from last year, and with the pandemic the consumption has soared. As a result, raw materials are constrained with inadequate supplies for processing. The prices have gradually firmed up and the market is expecting a further tightening on this oil.
Market price USD 7.00 /kilo
Harvest: July - December
The Brazilian orange crop, which started in July 2020 and is expected to end in June 2021, is forecast at 382.8 million boxes (15.6 million metric tonnes – MMT), a decrease of 19% compared with the previous season. The decline is due to the alternate bearing phenomenon in the São Paulo citrus belt, i.e. a reduction in crop size after the previous large production season because nutrient reserves are less, resulting in fewer fruits per tree; and weather related issues, mainly high temperatures in September and October 2019 affecting the setting of young fruits and less rainfall in March and April 2020 resulting in smaller fruit sizes.
According to Fundecitrus, the commercial area of the state of São Paulo and the western part of Minas Gerais, which represents approximately 75% of total production area, should produce 287.8 million boxes (11.74 MMT), a significant 100 million boxes reduction from the previous season. The forecast takes into account the following varieties: Hamlin, Westin, Rubi, Valencia Americana, Valencia Argentina, Seleta, Pineapple, Pera Rio, Valencia, “Folha Murcha” Valencia, and Natal.
根据Fundecitrus，圣保罗州和米纳斯吉拉斯西部的商业区约占总生产面积的75%，应生产2.878亿箱（1174万吨），比上一季大幅减少1亿箱。该预测包含了以下品种：Hamlin, Westin, Rubi, Valencia Americana, Valencia Argentina, Seleta, Pineapple, Pera Rio, Valencia, “Folha Murcha” Valencia, 和 Natal.。
According to the Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute (IBGE), production from other states is projected to go down 2 million boxes from the previous crop to 95 million boxes (3.87 MMT). Total Brazilian orange consumption is expected to go down to 120 million boxes (4.9 MMT), while total oranges for processing is expected to be reduced by 25% to 262 million boxes (10.7 MMT). The demand for orange oil remains high, especially with COVID-19 increasing demand for cleaning and home care applications, and the future production predictions have triggered price increases for orange oil, terpenes and d’limonene. Moreover, little oil carryover from the previous season and the effects of social distancing measures due to COVID-19 resulting in slower picking of fruit and additional costs of transporting pickers to and from farms, is causing the market to rise at a faster rate than initially anticipated. In addition, reduced availability of containers and shipping vessels is creating additional logistical difficulties putting further upward pressure on prices. The below average rainfall from March onwards has impacted fruit development and could create reduced crop availability and further upward price pressure.
根据巴西地理和统计研究局（IBGE）的数据，其他州的产量预计将比以前的作物减少200万箱，到9500万箱(3.87MMT)。 巴西橙子总消费量预计将下降到1.2亿箱(4.9MMT)，而加工用橙子总量预计将减少25%，到2.62亿箱(10.7MMT)。 对橙油的需求仍然很高，特别是由于COVID-19，对清洁和家庭护理应用的需求增加，而未来的产量预测也引发了橙油、萜烯和d-柠檬烯的价格上涨。 此外，上一季的油结转量很少；COVID-19造成的社会距离措施的影响导致水果采摘速度减慢，以及向农场接送采摘者的额外费用，正导致市场以比最初预期更快的速度增长。 此外，集装箱和船舶供应的减少造成了额外的后勤困难，对价格造成进一步的上涨压力。 从3月份开始，降雨量低于平均水平，影响了水果的发育，可能导致作物供应减少，价格进一步上涨。
Brazil’s production of orange juice is forecast to drop 22% to 1.022 MMT. The decline is due to expected lower supply availability of fruit for processing. The São Paulo industry is expected to process 238 million boxes of oranges for orange juice production, accounting for 942,000 MT of juice. Other producing states should deliver 24 million boxes, accounting for 80,000 MT of juice. Consumption and stocks are both estimated slightly higher while exports are forecast 15% lower with the drop in production. Even with lower supplies Brazil remains the largest producer and is projected to account for over three quarters of global orange juice exports.
Market price USD 8.00 /kilo
Harvest: October - February
The use of citronella oil in personal care, hand sanitiser and hygiene products has led to a surge in demand in the past six months. For the next 3-5 months the supply and price of the oil is expected to be stable. The scale of production in Indonesia makes it a stable crop. In the last 18 months there has been a significant increase in production and the exports in the first half of 2020 exceeded 700 MT. With the current oil price just above the production cost, there is hardly any room for the price to go down. Plantations remain largely unaffected.
Harvest: May - September
With major exporters maintaining substantial stocks of clove leaf and stem oils, the market was stable for the last 3-4 months but stocks are depleting now and this could result in a price increase. However, this will be a short-term occurrence and should be resolved when the new collection season commences. This is possible only after the monsoon. Currently, constant rain has adversely affected production. Dry leaves and stems are used to produce clove oil, but due to the rain farmers and distillers are unable to procure dry raw material. Madagascar is facing a similar situation, as rains hamper production activities.
Market price USD 15.00 - 21.00 /kilo
Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Harvest: All Year
There is limited supply of raw material in the market, which makes it difficult to maintain the quality of the oil. Increased vigilance activities are being undertaken to ensure there is no compromise on quality of nutmeg oil. Limited oil supply and consistent demand will probably push the price upward. Till now the demand and price of the oil have been stable in the first half of 2020. The slight price fluctuations can be attributed to volatile forex. There was a 15% devaluation of IDR in February and March.
市场上原料供应有限，难以维持油品质量。 目前正在加强警惕，以确保肉豆蔻油的质量不受影响。 有限的供应和持续的需求可能会推动价格上涨。 到目前为止，油的需求和价格在2020年上半年一直稳定。 价格的轻微波动可归因于外汇波动。 在2月和3月，印尼盾（IDR）贬值了15%。
Market price USD 62.00 /kilo
Harvest: All Year
Oil prices are firm at the moment. This is primarily because of the delayed harvest due to monsoon. Most regions of Sumatra and Sulawesi are experiencing constant rainfall. Regions of Southeast Asia received excess rain in July, resulting in flash floods and crop damage. Thus, there is no timeframe on the harvest currently, since this unexpected change in weather is difficult to predict.
目前油价坚挺。 这主要是由于季风造成的延迟收获。 苏门答腊和苏拉威西的大多数地区都在持续降雨。 东南亚地区在7月份受到过多的降雨，导致山洪暴发和农作物受损。 因此，目前没有关于收获的时间框架，因为这种意外的天气变化很难预测。
Just under 1,000 MT of patchouli oil was exported in the first half of 2020. This makes it the most valuable essential oil to be exported in Indonesia. There is lack of availability in the market right now. Big F&F companies at farmer and aggregator level are buying the available product at premium prices. Thus, there is hardly any product left for the open market.
在2020年上半年，广藿香油的出口仅不足1000公吨。 这使它成为印度尼西亚出口的最有价值的精油。 目前市场缺乏供应。 在种植和汇集者层面的大型香精香料公司正在以高价购买可用的产品。 因此，几乎没有任何产品留给开放市场。
Market price USD 55.00 - 65.00 /kilo
Key Lime Oil Citrus aurantifolia
Harvest: May - October
Mexico’s lime crop is expected to be 9% lower than last season at 2.199 million metric tonnes (MMT) mainly because of drought conditions in the growing regions.
Key limes are mainly grown in the state of Michoacan, with about 75% of total volume, and Colima, representing about 20-25% of the total of total Key lime volume in Mexico. High season has started in June; the volume of fruit available from Michoacan state is expected to decrease during August and September, and availability to rise again starting November. In Colima state this year’s availability is expected to reach its peak during the month of September.
主要生长在米却肯州的Key lime，约占总产量的75%，而科利马州，约占墨西哥Key Lime总量的20-25%。 6月开始了旺季，米却肯州的水果供应量预计将在8月和9月下降，11月开始供应量将再次上升。科利马州今年的供应预计将在9月份达到顶峰。
COVID-19 has certainly impacted both the processing and the fresh fruit market, and has also impacted consumer trends. The price of industrial limes has increased substantially. This cost increase is mainly due to the high demand for fresh limes both domestically and for export, and also strong competition between processors as a result of the current high Key lime oil demand in the market. With demand for distilled and cold pressed Key lime oil very firm worldwide, prices are increasing and this trend is expected to remain, as there is a possibility that this extra demand will not be met in full due to the limited Key lime available for processing.
COVID-19肯定影响了加工和新鲜水果市场，也影响了消费趋势。加工白柠檬的价格大幅上涨。 这一成本增加主要是由于国内和出口对新鲜白柠檬的需求很高，而且由于目前市场上对Key白柠檬油的需求很高，加工商之间的竞争也很激烈。 由于世界各地对蒸馏和冷榨Key白柠檬油的需求非常坚定，价格正在上涨，预计这一趋势将继续下去，因为由于可供加工的Key白柠檬有限，这一额外需求可能无法完全满足。
Persian limes are mainly grown in the state of Veracruz. The lime harvest in Veracruz has been delayed because of COVID-19 resulting in disruption in the supply chain, leading to increased prices in the local market. Similar to the Key lime market, strong demand from the fresh fruit market is making fruit prices higher for processing. Moreover, the damage from the 2019 drought will lead to the total volume of fruit processed in 2020 being less than in 2019. As a result, price for Persian lime oil is on the increase.
波斯白柠檬（Persian limes）主要生长在韦拉克鲁斯州。 由于COVID-19造成供应链中断，导致当地市场价格上涨，韦拉克鲁斯的白柠檬收成被推迟。与Key白柠檬市场类似，新鲜水果市场的强劲需求正在使水果加工价格上涨。此外，2019年干旱造成的损害将导致2020年加工的水果总量低于2019年。 因此，波斯白柠檬油的价格正在上涨。
Market price USD 40.00 /kilo (Distilled), USD 55.00 /kilo (Type-A), USD 65.00 /kilo (Type-B)
Grapefruit Oil Citrus paradisi
Harvest: December - April
Grapefruit production is forecast to go up by 4% to 387,000 MT this year compared to 371,849 MT in 2018/19. Considering normal weather conditions and sufficient rains, the yields are expected to improve. Grapefruit is harvested between March and September and Limpopo province is the leading growing region accounting for 58% of the total area planted of 8,000 hectares planted. Because of international demand, the Star Ruby variety dominates production, accounting for 84% of the area planted. The Marsh variety accounts for 12%. It was a bumper crop for grapefruit pink last season but, as expected, this year’s crop is considerably less by around 40%.
预计今年葡萄柚产量将增长4%，达到38.7万吨，而2018 /19年度的产量为37.1849万吨。考虑到正常的天气条件和充足的降雨，产量有望提高。葡萄柚在3月至9月收获，林波波省是葡萄柚的主要种植区，在8000公顷的种植面积中占58%。由于国际需求，Star Ruby品种大量生产，占种植面积的84%。Marsh品种占12%。上一季，粉柚获得了大丰收，但正如预期的那样，今年的收成要少40%左右。
Grapefruit is not very popular in the South African domestic market and a large proportion of production is exported as fresh fruit. Out of the total production, traditionally about 29% of the fruit is earmarked for processing into essential oil. This year’s estimates indicate a 3% increase to 110,000 MT for the year 2019/20. Grapefruit is processed to juice and concentrate, the majority of which is exported to Europe. Following juice extraction, the left-over pulp is an important source of grapefruit oil, used mainly to flavour beverages. Grapefruit peel oil is used in scented fragrances.
葡萄柚在南非国内市场不太受欢迎，很大一部分产品作为新鲜水果出口。 在总产量中，传统上约29%的水果被指定用于加工精油。 今年的估计表明，2019/20年将增加3%，达到11万公吨。 葡萄柚被加工成果汁和浓缩物，其中大部分出口到欧洲。 在提取果汁后，剩余果肉是圆柚油的重要来源，主要用于调味饮料。 圆柚皮油用于用于香精香料。
The KwaZulu-Natal region is inching into greater prominence as a producer of white grapefruit. An international company has partnered with local suppliers to bring 9 large-scale and 96 small-scale Zulu farmers under the banner of a cooperative. Technological equipment for a production line enabling recycling of side streams that would otherwise go to waste, has been set up. Though the facility specialises in grapefruit processing, it has the capacity to process up to 50,000 MT of citrus fruit per year. It also intends to invest in long-term partnerships with local farmers, ensuring best agricultural practices and good yields, delivering high quality products while supporting local families. White grapefruit is increasingly becoming a sought-after raw material for sweets and drinks. The establishment of the unit will improve the environmental footprint as well as help expand the existing citrus range with the addition of the unique flavours of white grapefruit.
Market price USD 28.00 /kilo (Pink) USD 43.00/kilo (White)
市场价格USD 28.00/千克（粉)USD 28.00/千克(白）
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.
Harvest: July - September
South African lemon production in 2019/20 is expected to increase to 579,000 MT, a rise of 18% compared with the previous crop. This is because of the increased output coming from the expanded area of production during the past five years. Similarly the number of lemons processed is forecast to increase by 15% to 140,000 MT in response to the increased demand for lemon products. Processed lemons are used to flavour beverages as well as a food ingredient in confectionery and dairy products. In the cleaning industry, lemon is used as a degreaser and disinfectant, due to its high concentration of citric acid which can inhibit the proliferation of some moulds and bacteria.
预计2019/20年南非柠檬产量将增加到57.9万公吨，比上一季增加18%。 这是因为在过去五年中，生产领域的扩大增加了产出。 同样，由于对柠檬产品的需求增加，预计加工柠檬的数量将增加15%，达到14万公吨。 柠檬加工产品被用来调味饮料以及在糖果和乳制品中的食品配料。在清洗业中，由于柠檬酸浓度高，可以抑制一些霉菌和细菌的增殖，因此被用作脱脂剂和消毒剂。
Market price USD 10.00 /kilo
Harvest: June - September
Over the past decade the South African orange sector has seen a steady upward trend in the area planted to reach 44,500 hectares in 2019/20, half of which is in Limpopo province. Valencia variety accounts for about 64% of the total area planted and Navels 36%. Oranges are normally harvested between March and September, and crop production in 2019/20 is expected to be flat at 1.60 million MT. Exports seem to be faring better with a record breaking 1.28 million MT with the EU and China being the primary markets. With the demand for fresh orange increasing the last year has seen a sizeable decline in the volume of oranges being processed, falling to 247,000 MT.
在过去十年中，南非的甜橙种植种植面积在稳步上升，2019/20年达到44,500公顷，其中一半在林波波省。 瓦伦西亚品种约占种植总面积的64%，脐橙占36%。 甜橙通常在3月至9月之间收获，2019/20年的作物产量预计将持平于160万公吨。 出口似乎好转，打破了128万公吨的纪录，欧盟和中国是主要市场。 随着去年对新鲜橙子的需求增加，正在加工的橙子数量大幅下降，降至24.7万公吨。
Market price USD 7.00 /kilo
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.
Harvest: November - July
The 2019/2020 European Union lemon crop is expected to decrease by 16% to 1.4 million metric tonnes (MMT) compared to the previous year. This is mainly due to a drop in production in Spain and Italy, the two largest lemon producers in Europe, because of unfavourable weather conditions. According to the latest data from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (MAPA), Spain’s 2019/2020 lemon production is forecast at 923,000 MT, a decrease of almost 20% compared to the previous year.
预计2019/2020年欧盟柠檬产量将比上年下降16%至140万公吨。 这主要是在不利的天气条件下，欧洲两大柠檬生产国西班牙和意大利的产量下降。 根据西班牙农业、渔业和食品部(MAPA)的最新数据，西班牙2019/2020柠檬产量预计为92.3万公吨，比上一年减少了近20%。
The reduction in Spanish lemon production has resulted in less fruit for processing. In addition, the industry has also experienced a further reduction in fruit for processing as a result of the fresh market taking advantage of Turkey’s reduced lemon presence in Eastern markets. On the other hand, having experienced additional demand in the fresh market with the COVID-19 outbreak in March as consumers reverted to fresh lemons for their high Vitamin C content, the impact of COVID-19 was reversed during May by reducing fresh fruit demand from the closure of the food service sector, making more fruit available for processing. It is possible that the 2019/2020 season could conclude with approximately 250,000 MT of processed lemons.
With regards to lemon oil, after the significant price decline there is a trend shift and prices have slowly started to go up from early 2020. Spanish lemon trees were hit after the blossoming stage and therefore a reduction in yield is forecast compared to last year. This, together with constant demand, is slowly but constantly pushing prices upwards.
至于柠檬油，在价格大幅下降后，出现了趋势变化，价格从2020年初开始缓慢上升。 西班牙柠檬树在开花阶段后受到打击，因此，与去年相比，产量预计会下降。 此外，需求不断增加，价格正在缓慢持续推高。
AILIMPO’s initial forecasts for the 2020/2021 new crop beginning in September estimate 1.25 MMT of lemons will be harvested, exceeding the projected final figure for 2019/2020 by 10%. This initial estimate will mainly depend on the availability of water during the summer and the autumn rains.
In the case of Fino lemon variety production, accounting for 70% of total production and predominantly used for processing, it is estimated at 950,000 MT, an increase of 14% over the current year. In making these forecasts AILIMPO considered the effect of the progressive entry into production of the new plantations carried out in recent years and the situation of the size of the lemons at the present time, which is considered optimal thanks to the good availability of water.
Regarding the Verna lemon variety, representing 30% of total production, the first forecast points to a harvest of 300,000 MT in 2021, which would represent a volume very similar to that of the current 2020 campaign with a slight decrease of 2%.
Market price EURO 16.00 /kilo
Grapefruit Oil Citrus paradisi
Harvest: December - April
According to the final USDA forecast, USA grapefruit production ended at 13.05 million boxes, which represents a more than 10% decrease from last year’s crop which was at 14.71 million boxes, mainly due to unfavourable weather conditions. With Florida’s total production slightly higher than the last crop, totalling 4.85 million boxes (4.06 million boxes of red/pink grapefruit and 790,000 boxes of white grapefruit varieties), both California and Texas production has decreased to 3.80 and 4.40 million boxes respectively. The reduction in California production is mainly due to general crop cycles.
Regarding grapefruit oil, the excess supply in the market of red/pink grapefruit oil is decreasing and there are indications that the price is starting to stabilise. Meanwhile, the white grapefruit oil price is stable though volume continues to be limited and this trend may continue in the future.
Market price USD 29.00 /kilo (Pink) USD 42.00 /kilo (White)
市场价格 USD 29.00/千克（粉） USD 42.00 /千克 (白）
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.
Harvest: May - July
The 2019/2020 total production of lemons in the USA is forecast at 22.9 million boxes, lower than the last crop despite higher production in Arizona. Californian lemon production is forecast at 21 million boxes down from last season’s 23.7 million boxes.
The demand for fresh lemons has decreased because of COVID-19 due to the shutdown of schools, restaurants, cruise lines and other commercial food-service operations. This has generated changes in the amounts of fruit intended for fresh consumption and fruit for processing. Where previously 85-90% of the lemons were going to the fresh fruit market, this disruption in the food-service might generate the split likely to be 70% fresh fruit and 30% fruit for processing.
Market price USD 29.00 /kilo
市场价格 USD 29.00/千克
Harvest: February - May
The USA total orange production 2019/2020 is estimated down 5% compared to last season to 119.999 million boxes. The USDA final forecast for Florida’s orange crop is 67.650 million boxes, which is lower than last season’s crop. This total is comprised of 29.65 million boxes of non-Valencia oranges (early, midseason and Navel varieties), and 38.0 million boxes of Valencia oranges. Meanwhile, the forecast for California all oranges is 51.0 million boxes, almost unchanged from last season, with 42.0 million boxes of non-Valencia oranges and 9.0 million boxes of Valencia oranges. Finally, the forecast for Texas all oranges is 1.34 million boxes, almost half compared to last season, with 1.15 million boxes for non-Valencia oranges and 190,000 boxes for Valencia oranges.
美国2019/2020年的甜橙总产量预计比上一季下降5%，达到11999.9万箱。 美国农业部对佛罗里达州的甜橙作物的最终预测是6765万箱，低于上一季的作物。 这一总数包括2965万箱非瓦伦西亚橙（早期、中期和脐橙品种）和3800万箱瓦伦西亚橙。 与此同时，加州所有甜橙的预测是5100万箱，与上一季几乎没有变化，有4200万箱非瓦伦西亚橙和900万箱瓦伦西亚橙。 最后，德克萨斯州所有甜橙的预测是134万箱，几乎是上一季的一半，其中115万箱为非瓦伦西亚橙，19万箱为瓦伦西亚橙。
In Florida, the reduction may have been the result of heavier than usual fruit drop due to COVID-19, with processors limiting intake of Valencia oranges, and weather conditions that might have favoured citrus greening. Meanwhile in Texas, Hurricane Hanna in July caused significant damage to the citrus industry, with estimates suggesting a 30% crop loss. However, there has been some positive news coming from scientists at the University of California, Riverside who claim to have discovered a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide capable of controlling citrus greening.
USA orange consumption and exports are both up, while fruit for processing is expected to be lower with the decline in production. USA orange juice production is estimated down 10% to 297,000 metric tonnes with the drop in oranges available for processing. Slightly higher exports and lower imports are anticipated to bring down stocks.
Market price USD 7.00 /kilo
市场价格 USD 7.00/千克